By Editorial Staff
Published December 22, 2007
Charles Darwin sparked a revolution in scientific thought with the publication of his book, The Origin of Species, in 1859. With his concept of evolution by natural selection, Darwin attempted to render invalid the biblical idea that “every living thing produces life after its own kind.” Today this concept is taught in schools, colleges, and even online degree programs across the country.
In the first half of Species, Darwin cited evidence for “micro-evolution,” or changes on a small level between species. His discovery of the several different types of finches on the Galapagos Islands with similar characteristics, derived from a common ancestor, comprised his evidence for micro-evolution. The 14 different species of finches vary according to plumage, size (from the size of a sparrow to that of a large blackbird), beak morphology, behavior and environmental habitat. They were each very different, yet closely related.
From this observation, Darwin then extrapolated his explanation for the origin of life forms from a common ancestor, or “macro-evolution.” He used the evidence from the first half of his book on micro-evolution to suggest that the same mechanism could produce all life forms. However, this concept of macro-evolution is not supported by modern scientific evidence. Although we can explain and understand the mechanism behind micro-evolution, we still can only theorize about possible explanations for macro-evolution – since it has no scientifically valid occurrences.
The “Evolution” of Poodles and Chihuahuas?
The concept of micro-evolution – or diversification of species – is a fact of nature. Species do vary and change, but only on a small scale. We have many examples of Darwin’s finches and even the breeding history of dogs which supports the notion of micro-evolution.
Micro-evolution was first understood when George Mendel demonstrated the variation within species based on genetic mechanisms. By Mendelian genetics we see the various dog species, which range from the St. Bernard to the chihuahua. The concept of micro-evolution is widely accepted today and supports the biblical notion of life reproducing after its own “kind.” In other words, it is accepted in scientific circles that all the different types of dogs most likely descended from a common canine ancestor.
Evolutionists, however, have expanded the model to suggest the origin of the universe, the origin of life from non-life, the origin of amphibians from fishes, the origin of birds from reptiles, and so on. Scientists have many theories of the mechanisms behind macro-evolution, but none of them have any direct evidence. The theories are merely extrapolations from what can be seen on the smaller scale.
This extrapolation is scientifically unjustified. The underlying logic behind this premise is similar to plotting the fastest times man has run the mile over the years, and then predicting that someday man will run a two or three-minute mile. Anyone realizes that there are limits to valid extrapolation. Likewise, Darwinian macro-evolution is undergoing tremendous scrutiny in scientific circles because of the lack of evidence.
When Did the Fish Sprout Legs?
When one examines the historical record of life, we find the absence of transitional forms between the major life groups such as fish and amphibians or reptiles and birds. The fossil record has failed to yield the host of transitional forms demanded by the theory of macro-evolution. Rather, the fossils show an abrupt appearance of very distinct groups of animals.
Take, for example, the supposed“fish-to-amphibian” transition. The general assumption has been that the earliest amphibians evolved from the order of fish, the Rhipidistia. However, there are major differences between the earliest assumed amphibians, the Ichtyostega, and its presumed fish ancestor. The differences are not simply a few small bone changes but are enormous structural differences as can be seen in Figure 1.
The first amphibian had well-developed fore- and hind limbs which were fully capable of supporting terrestrial motion. The transitions between the two are strictly hypothetical, and no transitional fossils have ever been found … only imagined and artistically drawn. The mechanism for the supposed macro-evolution of the fish to the amphibian is purely hypothetical.
This lack of transitional forms occurs between all major groups of life. Hypothetical transition forms are drawn to show the change from a reptile to a bird but the fossil record has no evidence that this has ever occurred. Even the closest known intermediate, the Archaeopteryx, was a fully developed bird with the capability of flight like modern birds. Darwin’s idea of micro-evolution of the finches can provide no explanation or support for the notion of birds evolving from reptiles. One cannot extrapolate from micro-evolution to macro-evolution when scientific evidences do not provide any support for it.
Evolutionists realize that the fossil record challenges the very notion of macro-evolution. As leading evolutionist and paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould stated: “All paleontologists know that the fossil record contains precious little in the way of intermediate forms; transitions between major groups are characteristically abrupt. The extreme rarity of transitional forms in the fossil record persists as the trade secret of paleontology. We fancy ourselves as the only true students of life’s history, yet to preserve our favored account of evolution by natural selection we view our data as so bad that we never see the very process we profess to study.“1
When looking back through the history of life as recorded in the earth, we find no evidence suggesting the change from one major group to another. The fossil record suggests micro-evolution as Darwin did, but shows no evidence for macro-evolution. We do not have any fossil group which can claim to belong to the ancestor of another major group. Each fossil group has retained its unique and distinct structural and physiological characteristics throughout its life history.
The origin of life has long been described by the tree of evolution, with major groups branching off from common ancestors. Unfortunately, the branches and gaps between kinds of life are so vast and great that they cannot be considered part of the same tree. The description of the fossil record could be more accurately summarized by a forest of trees rather than just one tree of life. We observe the abrupt appearance of different life forms and have witnessed the diversification of life within those kinds. We can observe micro-evolution taking place from the first organisms within each kind. But the genetic variation we see occurring today occurs only in narrow limits.
The fossil record actually supports the model of creation. The Genesis account of creation states that God created the various kinds of plants, birds, fishes and animals on earth. From the creation model, one would expect to see an abrupt appearance of life forms as well as distinct and separate groups. The fossil record shows exactly that, not a history of gradual change from one major kind of life to another.
The entire theme throughout the book of Genesis is that life reproduces after its own kind. Darwin’s finches still reproduce finches. It is a testimony to the creativity of God that He has created so many different forms of life, and even placed the great genetic potential for variation within the first creatures. Natural selection over the years has only drawn upon that great genetic potential as Charles Darwin observed. Natural selection brings out the diversity of life but cannot create new major groups of life as macro-evolution would postulate.
1 Stephen Jay Gould, Natural History, 1977, 86:14.
A seal and one of its closest terrestrial relatives. Drawing taken from Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Adler & Adler, Publishers Inc., 1985).
The earliest known amphibian alongside a Rhipidistian fish. Drawing taken from Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Adler & Adler, Publishers Inc., 1985).
Forerunner - Home » The Forerunner Newspaper » Science
Your comments are welcome!
Visit The Forerunner's Discussion Forum!
Who is the dreaded beast of Revelation?
Now at last, a plausible candidate for this personification of evil incarnate has been identified (or re-identified). Ken Gentry’s insightful analysis of scripture and history is likely to revolutionize your understanding of the book of Revelation — and even more importantly — amplify and energize your entire Christian worldview!
Historical footage and other graphics are used to illustrate the lecture Dr. Gentry presented at the 1999 Ligonier Conference in Orlando, Florida. It is followed by a one-hour question and answer session addressing the key concerns and objections typically raised in response to his position. This presentation also features an introduction that touches on not only the confusion and controversy surrounding this issue — but just why it may well be one of the most significant issues facing the Church today.
Ideal for group meetings, personal Bible study — for anyone who wants to understand the historical context of John’s famous letter “… to the seven churches which are in Asia.” (Revelation 1:4)
Running Time: 145 minutes
$17.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
High Quality Paperback — 219 pages
Foundations in Biblical Orthodoxy
Driving down a country road sometime, you might see a church with a sign proudly proclaiming: “No book but the Bible — No creed but Christ.” The problem with this statement is that the word creed (from the Latin: credo) simply means “belief.” All Christians have beliefs, regardless of whether they are written.
Yet a single book containing the actual texts of the most important creeds of the early Church will not often be found. Out of the multitude of works on the evangelical Christian book market today, those dealing with the creeds of the Church are scarce.
Why Creeds and Confessions? provides a foundation of biblical orthodoxy as a defense against the false and truly heretical doctrines advanced by the spirit of this age.
$14.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Special Two-Disc Set!
After 40 years of intense study and world-wide ministry, Dr. Francis Schaeffer completed his crowning work of scholarship – to present profound truths in simple film language. Dr. Schaeffer’s brilliant analysis of the past and predictions for current trends have proven so uncannily accurate that this amazing series still feels contemporary almost three decades after its initial release. Ultimately, Schaeffer concludes that man’s only hope is a return to God’s Biblical absolute, the truth revealed in Christ through the Scriptures.
Available for the first time on DVD, this documentary spectacular also includes intimate in-depth conversations with Francis and Edith Schaeffer. With the on-disc study guide, this presentation forms a unique course of comprehensive study. While this series forms an innovative analysis of the past, this outstanding work is more than history. Each episode focuses on a significant era, yet speaks clearly to 21st-century man with answers for modern problems.
$49.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Who is the Real Jesus?
Ever since the dawn of modern rationalism, skeptics have sought to use textual criticism, archeology and historical reconstructions to uncover the “historical Jesus” — a wise teacher who said many wonderful things, but fulfilled no prophecies, performed no miracles and certainly did not rise from the dead in triumph over sin.
Over the past 100 years, however, startling discoveries in biblical archeology and scholarship have all but vanquished the faulty assumptions of these doubting modernists. Regrettably, these discoveries have often been ignored by the skeptics as well as by the popular media. As a result, the liberal view still holds sway in universities and impacts the culture and even much of the church.
The Real Jesus explodes the myths of these critics and the movies, books and television programs that have popularized their views. Presented in ten parts — perfect for individual, family and classroom study — viewers will be challenged to go deeper in their knowledge of Christ in order to be able to defend their faith and present the truth to a skeptical modern world – that the Jesus of the Gospels is the Jesus of history — “the same yesterday, today and forever” (Hebrews 13:8). He is the real Jesus.
Speakers include: George Grant, Ted Baehr, Stephen Mansfield, Raymond Ortlund, Phil Kayser, David Lutzweiler, Jay Grimstead, J.P. Holding, and Eric Holmberg.
Ten parts, over two hours of instruction!
Running Time: 130 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)
Exposing The Occult Roots of Abortion
This presentation looks at the spiritual roots of abortion and exposes the myths surrounding child killing. Little known historical facts about abortion and how they relate to modern feminism are presented logically and accurately. Has been effective in converting many to a pro-life position.
Massacre of Innocence goes where no pro-life presentation has gone before in “tearing the lid off abortion” to reveal the spiritual realities we must battle if we will bring an end to this crime. The presentation is absorbing, fast-paced, informative and incredibly devastating to any attempt to justify abortion.
“… an extraordinary statement … a powerfully articulate presentation about what abortion really means, and why a great and moral nation like the United States must not allow the slaughter to continue.”
— Congressman Robert K. Dornan
Running time: 85 minutes
$19.95 — ORDER NOW!(We accept all major credit cards and PayPal.)