ABORTION INDUSTRY IN MELBOURNE, FLORIDA
RANEY V AWARE WOMAN
DOCKET / CHRONOLOGICAL FILE
36 FOOT BUFFER ZONE INJUNCTION, AWARE WOMAN, MELBOURNE, FLORIDA
36-foot Buffer Zone Injunction
Below is the entire text of the injunction that created the 36-foot buffer zone injunction around the Aware Woman Center for Choice abortion clinic in Melbourne, Florida that was the subject of the Madsen v. Woman's Health Center US Supreme Court case in 1994.
IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE EIGHTEENTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN AND FOR SEMINOLE COUNTY, FLORIDA
CASE NO.: 91-2811-CA-16-K
WOMEN'S HEALTH CENTER, INC.,
AWARE WOMAN CENTER FOR CHOICE,
INC., et al.,
OPERATION RESCUE, OPERATION
RESCUE AMERICA, OPERATION
GOLIATH, ED MARTIN, BRUCE CADLE, et al.,
AMENDED PERMANENT INJUNCTION
THIS CAUSE came before the court for hearing on the motion of petitioners for sanctions and modification of the permanent injunction entered by this court, (The Honorable Wallace H. Hall) dated September 30, 1992, and the court having taken three days of testimony and having carefully considered the evidence and the legal arguments makes the following findings:
A. That despite the injunction of September 30, 1992, there has been interference with ingress to the petitioners' facility known as the Aware Woman Clinic located on the northwest corner of U.S. Highway One and Dixie Way in the City of Melbourne, Brevard County, Florida. The interference to ingress has taken the form of persons on the paved portions of Dixie Way, some standing without any obvious relationship to others; some moving about, again without any obvious relationship to others; some holding signs, some not; some approaching, apparently trying to communicate with the occupants of motor vehicles moving on the paved surface; some marching in a circular picket line that traversed the entrance driveways to the two parking lots of the petitioners and the short section of sidewalk joining the two parking lots and then entering the paved portion of the north lane of Dixie Way and returning in the opposite direction. (See drawing attached.) Other persons would be standing, kneeling and sitting on the unpaved shoulders of the public right-of-way. As vehicular traffic approached the area it would, in response to the congestion, slow down. If the destination of such traffic was either of the two parking lots of the petitioners, such traffic slowed even more, sometimes having to momentarily hesitate or stop until persons in the driveway moved out of the way.
B. The number of people on any one day would vary from a handful to a crowd of four hundred. The composition of the crowd would include some of the named respondents in this cause; some persons who were loosely associated with the respondents' organizations, Operation Rescue and Operation Goliath; some who were present in support of the clinic (pro-choice); some law enforcement officers engaging in crowd and traffic control (from five officers on light days to as many as fifty officers on other days); and some representatives of the print and television media. The frequency with which persons would appear at this location would range from once a week to three times a week with the largest gatherings usually on Saturdays.
C. Associated with such gatherings would be noise emanating from singing, chanting, whistling, loudspeakers on the exterior of the clinic broadcasting music, individual portable radios (boom boxes), and occasional bullhorns. Individuals of the partisan groups would shout and yell at each other, frequently approaching so closely as to be in each other's face trying to out-sound the other, occasionally using boom boxes at full volume as an assist.
D. The Melbourne Police Department officers on the scene on some occasions erected temporary barricades (saw horse type) in an effort to put some distance between the partisan groups. The respondents and those aligned with them, remained primarily in the public right of way (paved and unpaved). The pro-choice people would be on the edge of the clinic's lawn and parking lot (private property) but occasionally attempting to share the sidewalk with the opposition. On at least one occasion in order to give more room for people, the police barricaded the north lane of Dixie Way so that two-way vehicular traffic was confined to the single south lane.
E. As traffic slowed on Dixie Way and began its turn into the clinic's driveway, the vehicle would be approached by persons designated by the respondents as sidewalk counselors attempting to get the attention of the vehicles' occupants to give them antiabortion literature and to urge them not to use the clinic's services. Such so-called sidewalk counselors were assisted in accomplishing their approach to the vehicle by the hesitation or momentary stopping caused by the time needed for the picket line to open up before the vehicle could enter the parking lot.
F. The clinic has fences on its west and north side, and persons would occasionally place a ladder on the outside of the fence and position themselves at an elevation above the fence and attempt to communicate by shouting at persons (staff and patients) entering the clinic. On one occasion the communication to a clinic staff person took the form of an attempt to invoke the wrath of God by shouting, "I pray that God strikes you dead now!"
G. On other occasions since the entry of the injunction on September 30, 1992, the respondent, Cadle, and others in concert with him approached the private residences or temporary lodging places of clinic employees. These approaches included not only direct communication with the occupants (sometimes the "home alone," minor children of the occupants), but also carrying signs, walking up and down on the sidewalk or street in front of the residence, shouting at passersby, contacting (ringing doorbells of) neighbors, and providing literature identifying the clinic employee as a "baby killer."
H. On one occasion the respondent, Cadle, with others went to the vicinity of the motel where a staff physician was temporarily staying and demonstrated. While respondent, Cadle, remained outside just off the premises of the motel, others went upon the premises of the motel, some entering the motel lobby, yelling "child murderer" and "baby killer." The doctor testified that as a result of such activity his departure for the clinic was delayed by one-half hour.
I. The same staff physician testified that on one occasion while he was attempting to enter the parking lot of the clinic, he had to stop his vehicle and remained stopped while respondent, Cadle, and others took their time to get out of the way and while doing so were yelling and screaming at the doctor, "Baby killer"- "We don't want you here in Melbourne." This physician also testified that he witnessed the demonstrators running along side of and in front of patients' vehicles, pushing pamphlets in car windows to persons who had not indicated any interest in such literature. As a result of patients having to run such a gauntlet, the patients manifested a higher level of anxiety and hypertension causing those patients to need a higher level of sedation to undergo the surgical procedures, thereby increasing the risk associated with such procedures. The doctor also testified that the noise of singing, chanting, shouting and yelling could be heard through the walls of the clinic and caused stress in the patients during surgical procedures and while recuperating in the recovery rooms. The doctor also testified that he observed some patients turn away from the crowd in the driveway to return at a later date. He testified that such delay in undergoing the procedures also increased the risk associated therewith.
J. On another occasion the doctor was followed as he left the clinic by a person associated with the respondents who communicated his anger to the doctor by pretending to shoot him from the adjoining vehicle. As a result of the foregoing demonstrations and activities, and after a physician similarly employed was killed by an anti-abortionist at a clinic in North Florida, this doctor terminated his employment with the clinic.
K. Further the testimony of witnesses shows:
1. That license tag numbers of the clinics patients are recorded by the respondents or. persons in concert with them and then are traced through state records to obtain the home address Of such persons who are subsequently contacted by the respondents.
2. That on occasion repeated, nearly simultaneous, multiple telephone calls are made to the clinic, jamming its telephone lines. The jamming of the clinic's telephone system, makes it impossible for clinic staff to summon an ambulance to transfer any patient to the hospital should an emergency arise.
3. That patients and staff are sometimes followed in a stalking manner when they leave the clinic, giving such persons a feeling of great apprehension.
A. That the actions of the respondents and those in concert with them in the street and driveway approaches to the clinic of the plaintiffs continue to impede and obstruct both staff and patients from entering the clinic. The paved surfaces of the public right-of-way must be kept open for the free flow of vehicular traffic.
B. That the noise associated with the demonstrations impermissibly interferes with the operation of the clinic and the well-being of its patients and should be limited and restrained.
C. That the actions of the respondents and those acting in concert with them directed at the residences (including the temporary motel residence) of the clinic staff is impermissible conduct and should be limited restrained. A person's home is his last place of refuge and his right of privacy therein should be protected. A place of business, not involved in the controversy of others, should not be subjected to demonstrations that interfere with business customers.
D. That the actions of the respondents and those acting in concert with them in respect to interfering with the telephone service of the clinic is impermissible and should be restrained.
E. That the uninvited contacts, shadowing and stalking by the respondents and those acting in concert with them of the clinic staff and patients are impermissible conduct and should be restrained.
F. That the rights of the respondents to demonstrate, speak and make known their views should be recognized and protected.
It is, therefore
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that the respondents, Operation Rescue, Operation Rescue America, Operation Goliath, their officers, agents, members, employees and servants, and Ed Martin, Bruce Cadle, Pat Mahoney, Randall Terry, Judy Madsen, and Shirley Hobbs, and all persons acting in concert or participation with them, or on their behalf, with notice in any manner or by means of this order (hereinafter referred to generally as respondents) are permanently enjoined from engaging in tile following:
(1) At all times on all days, from entering the premises and property of the Aware Woman Center for Choice, Inc. Clinic (hereinafter Clinic) located at the northwest corner of U.S. Highway One and Dixie Way in Melbourne, Brevard County, Florida.
(2 ) At all times on all days, from blocking, impeding, inhibiting, or in any other manner obstructing or interfering with access to, ingress into and egress from any building or parking lot of the Clinic.
(3) At all times on all days, from congregating, picketing, patrolling, demonstrating or entering that portion of public right-of-way or private property within thirty-six (36) feet of the property line of the Clinic. The 36-foot buffer on the south side of the Clinic is demarcated by the south edge of paved surface of Dixie Way. It is the intent of the court that the respondents may use, subject to other restrictions contained herein, the unpaved portion (the shoulder) on the south side of Dixie Way. A drawing is attached hereto showing the various areas and lines. An exception to the 36-foot buffer zone is the area immediately adjacent to the Clinic on the east, lying in the right-of-way of U.S. Highway one. This area is composed of a flat shoulder area rising up an embankment to the easterly property line of the Clinic. The respondents may enter the shoulder area of U.S. Highway One, but may not go up the embankment and must remain at least five (5) feet from the Clinic's east line. Another exception to the 36-foot buffer zone relates to the record title owners of the property to the north and west of the Clinic. The prohibition against entry into the 36-foot buffer zone does not apply to such persons and their invitees. The other prohibitions contained herein do apply, if such owners and their invitees are acting in concert with the respondents. Another exception to the 36-foot buffer zone relates to the area of the pedestrian crosswalk near the area where Dixie Way enters into U.S. Highway One. The testimony before the Court revealed that such crosswalk is not presently marked by customary white lines. It is the request of this court, in order to assist the parties in complying with this injunction, that the City of Melbourne establish a crosswalk area at the eastern end of Dixie Way in customary manner by applying painted lines on the surface of the pavement. Until such lines are applied, the respondents may use an area of the paved surface of Dixie Way as a crosswalk, but must confine their use of such area to a strip of pavement eight (8) feet wide, running directly from the south edge of Dixie Way to the north edge thereof, the westerly line of such strip being coextensive with the western right-of-way line of U.S. Highway One. (See drawing attached.) After painted lines are applied, the respondents must not enter any portion of the paved surface of Dixie Way outside of the crosswalk within the 36-foot buffer zone. The respondents' use of the crosswalk must be limited to the prompt crossing of the street. The crosswalk may not be used as an area of picketing, congregating or demonstrating. The respondents' use of the crosswalk must not inhibit or impede the free flow of traffic on Dixie Way, and no stopping or hesitation in the crosswalk shall be allowed.
(4) During the hours of 7:30 a.m. through noon, on Mondays through Saturdays, during surgical procedures and recovery periods, from singing, chanting, whistling, shouting, yelling, use of bullhorns, auto horns, sound amplification equipment or other sounds or images observable to or within earshot of the patients inside the Clinic.
(5) At all times oil all days, in an area within three-hundred (300) feet of the Clinic, from-physically approaching any person seeking the services of the Clinic unless such person indicates a desire to communicate by approaching or by inquiring of the respondents. In the event of such invitation, the respondents may engage in communications consisting of conversation of a non-threatening nature and by the delivery of literature within the three-hundred (300) foot area but in no event within the 36-foot buffer zone. Should any individual decline such communication, otherwise known as "sidewalk counseling," that person shall have the absolute right to leave or walk away and the respondents shall not: accompany such person, encircle, surround, harass, threaten or physically or verbally abuse those individuals who choose not to communicate with them.
(6) At all times on all days, from approaching, congregating, picketing, patrolling, demonstrating or using bullhorns or other sound amplification equipment within three-hundred (300) feet of the residence of any of the petitioners' employees, staff, owners or agents, or blocking or attempting to block, barricade, or in any other manners, temporarily or otherwise, obstruct the entrances, exits or driveways of the residences of any of the petitioners' employees, staff, owners or agents. The respondents and those acting in concert with them are prohibited from inhibiting or temporarily or otherwise, the free ingress or egress of persons to any street that provides the sole access to the street on which those residences are located.
(7) At all times on all days, from physically abusing, grabbing, intimidating, harassing, touching, pushing, shoving, crowding or assaulting persons entering or leaving, working at or using services at the petitioners' Clinic or trying to gain access to, or leave, any of the homes of owners, staff or patients of the Clinic (unless permitted by "invited contact" as defined on page 10 of this order).
(8) At all times on all days, from harassing, intimidating or physically abusing, assaulting or threatening any present or former doctor, health care professional, or other staff member, employee or volunteer who assists in providing services at the petitioners' Clinic.
(9) At all times on all days, from encouraging, inciting, or securing other persons to commit any of the prohibited acts listed herein.
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that nothing herein shall restrict duly constituted law enforcement authorities from providing traffic control and regulation and measures necessary to insure public safety and the protection of both public and private property.
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that any City of Melbourne police officer or other person authorized to serve process may serve a copy of this order on any individual who may not have otherwise received notice of the order. Such officer may read the operative prohibitory language of this order to any individual who is without notice of this order, and such service or oral notice shall subject the person so served or noticed to the sanctions provided for herein for failure to comply herewith. If the authorities of the City of Melbourne determine that it would assist them in enforcing this order to erect in the public right-of-way a notice that the use of the area specified herein as a buffer zone is subject to court order, they are authorized to do so. Such signs may contain the following language or words of similar import: "WARNING. Demonstrations and picketing in this area are limited by court order. Violators of this court order are subject to arrest. See Amended Permanent Injunction dated April 8, 1993, filed in Case No. 91-2811-CA-16-K, Circuit Court, l8th Judicial Circuit, Seminole County, FL. Copies of the Amended Permanent Injunction are posted at Brevard County Branch Courthouse, 50 S. Neiman Ave., Melbourne, FL; Sarno Complex, 1515 Sarno Road, Melbourne, FL; and Melbourne City Hall, 900 E. Strawbridge Ave., Melbourne, FL."
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that, in order to provide for the protection of the owners, staff and patients of the Clinic and to prevent the further disruption of the operation of the Clinic, the court hereby enters the following additional orders:
a. Law enforcement officers and Southern Bell Telephone Company are authorized, upon request of the Clinic owners to place a trap on the telephone lines of the Aware Woman Center in order to identify those persons engaged in a phone blockade and jamming of the Clinic's phone lines;
b. Law enforcement authorities, pursuant to the protective provisions of the court's order, are authorized to arrest those persons who appear to be in willful and intentional disobedience of this injunction. Upon such arrest the person so arrested shall be admitted to bail upon the posting of a $500 cash or surety bond, which bond will be returnable before the undersigned judge at his chambers, Room N327, Seminole County Courthouse, 301 N. Park Avenue, Sanford, FL at 8:30 a.m. on the seventh (7th) day after arrest exclusive of weekends and holidays. Any county or circuit judge in Brevard County is authorized to modify, upward or downward, the dollar amount and the return date of such bond upon good cause being shown. In the event of arrest and no bond being posted, the person arrested shall be promptly transferred to the Seminole County jail and the undersigned judge shall be immediately notified by the arresting officer and Seminole County jailer of such confinement. Such arrested persons shall be brought before the undersigned judge not later than 8:30 a.m. of the day following his confinement in the Seminole County jail.
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that at all times on all days, respondents shall have the right to congregate, demonstrate and freely express themselves outside the clinic buffer zone subject to the noise limitations on the days of surgical procedures set out in paragraph 4 of this order and subject also to all other provisions of this order and any other retraining orders and injunctions that may have been issued by other courts.
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that at all times on all days, respondents will have the right of invited contact with persons protected hereby so long as it is outside of the Clinic buffer zone. "Invited contact" is defined as conduct by the person sought to be contacted which affirmatively indicates a desire to engage in conversation or to receive literature. Such affirmative indication may include where the person sought to be contacted physically approaches the respondent, or where such person extends his or her hand to receive literature, or speaks, words indicating a positive interest in what the respondent is saying. Such invited contact by a person protected hereby as it relates to a contact at such persons residence is limited to conduct transmitted by the resident to a respondent at a distance from and at a time prior to the contact and shall not include the uninvited ringing of a doorbell or, knock on a door. Any invited contact may be canceled by such person by word spoken that indicate a desire to end the contact, such as "stop," "withdraw," "back off," "get away'', "leave me alone" or words or actions of similar import. Where such desire to end the contact is made known to a respondent, he/she must immediately terminate the contact and leave the presence of the person protected hereby.
ORDERED AND ADJUDGED that the permanent injunction of this court issued September 30, 1992, shall remain in full force and effect as to all persons and entities and places mentioned therein except as hereby modified.
Attached hereto and made a part hereof is a drawing which shows the Clinic buffer zone referred to in this order.
DONE AND ORDERED in Sanford, Seminole County, Florida this 8th day of April, 1993.
ROBERT B. McGREGOR, Circuit Judge
Copies furnished to:
Talbot D'Alemberte- 215 S. Monroe St., Suite 601, Tallahassee, FL 32301
Kathy Patrick, 1100 Louisiana, Suite 3400, Houston, TX 77002
Jerri A. Blair, 351 W. Alfred St., Tavares, FL 32778
Christopher J. Weiss, Two S. Orange Ave., Orlando, FL 32802
Sheila Rae Eschenberg, 221 Avenida De Paz,, Indiatlantic, FL 32903
Bruce Cadle, 701 Andrew St., N.E., Palm Bay, FL 32905
Patrick Mahoney, 1345 N.E. Fourth Court, Boca Raton, FL 33432 and
at 613 Second Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20002
Randall Terry, RR, 2, Box 196, Harpursville, NY 13787-9536
by Doris D. Brady,
Date: April 8, 1993
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